feasts, festivals, and fasts

feasts, festivals, and fasts

Activities that, in the Bible, are observed to commemorate or emphasize events in the relationship between God and human beings. The Pentateuch prescribes the observance of several recurring festal or otherwise positive religious occasions: every seventh day was to be set apart as a Sabbath on which no work was to be performed (Exod 20:8-11; Deut 5:12-15). The first day of each lunar month was a day for feasting (1Sam 20:5; 1Sam 20:18; 1Sam 20:24; 1Sam 20:27) and rest (Amos 8:5), and special sacrifices were to be made (Num 28:11-15; Ezek 46:6-7). Of the new-moon festivals, that in the seventh month (the Festival of Trumpets) was the most important (Lev 23:23-25; Num 29:1-6). Three festivals, called pilgrimage festivals, required the participation of Israelite males at the sanctuary (Exod 23:14; Exod 23:17; Exod 34:23; Deut 16:16-17) the Passover and Festival of Unleavened Bread, which were celebrated from the sunset of the fourteenth to the twenty-first day of the first month (Exod 12; Exod 23:15; Exod 34:18; Exod 34:25; Lev 23:5-8; Num 9:1-14; Num 28:16-25; Deut 16:1-8; Ezek 45:21-24); the Festival of Weeks, which occurred at the beginning of the wheat harvest seven weeks after the presentation of the barley omer (Exod 23:16; Exod 34:22; Lev 23:15-21; Num 28:26-31; Deut 16:9-10); and the Festival of Tabernacles (Booths), which was celebrated on the fifteenth through the twenty-second days of the seventh month, when the harvest and produce were gathered in (Exod 23:16; Exod 34:22; Lev 23:33-36; Num 28:12-31; Deut 16:13-18; Ezek 45:25). In contrast to feasts and festivals, fasts were times of mourning and self-denial arising from misfortune and sin. The only prescribed annual fast was that on the Day of Atonement (Lev 16:29-34; Lev 23:26-32; Num 29:7). It occurred on the tenth day of the seventh month. In the NT, the Gospels report that Jesus observed Jewish festivals (John 5:1; John 7:2; John 7:10; Matt 26:17-18), and a tradition recorded by Paul reports that Jesus transformed Passover for his followers into a ritual remembrance of his death (1Cor 11:24).

Exod 20:8-11

8Remember the sabbath day, and keep it holy.9Six days you shall labor and do all your work.10But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall no ... View more

Deut 5:12-15

12Observe the sabbath day and keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you.13Six days you shall labor and do all your work.14But the seventh day is a sabbat ... View more

1Sam 20:5

5David said to Jonathan, “Tomorrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at the meal; but let me go, so that I may hide in the field until ... View more

1Sam 20:18

18Jonathan said to him, “Tomorrow is the new moon; you will be missed, because your place will be empty.

1Sam 20:24

24So David hid himself in the field. When the new moon came, the king sat at the feast to eat.

1Sam 20:27

27But on the second day, the day after the new moon, David's place was empty. And Saul said to his son Jonathan, “Why has the son of Jesse not come to the feast ... View more

Amos 8:5

5saying, “When will the new moon be over
so that we may sell grain;
and the sabbath,
so that we may offer wheat for sale?
We will make the ephah small and the s ... View more

Num 28:11-15

Monthly Offerings
11At the beginnings of your months you shall offer a burnt offering to the Lord: two young bulls, one ram, seven male lambs a year old without ... View more

Ezek 46:6-7

6On the day of the new moon he shall offer a young bull without blemish, and six lambs and a ram, which shall be without blemish;7as a grain offering he shall p ... View more

Lev 23:23-25

The Festival of Trumpets
23The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:24Speak to the people of Israel, saying: In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you sha ... View more

Num 29:1-6

Offerings at the Festival of Trumpets
1On the first day of the seventh month you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not work at your occupations. It is a ... View more

Exod 23:14

The Annual Festivals
14Three times in the year you shall hold a festival for me.

Exod 23:17

17Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord GOD.

Exod 34:23

23Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord God, the God of Israel.

Deut 16:16-17

16Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Lord your God at the place that he will choose: at the festival of unleavened bread, at the festival ... View more

Exod 12

The First Passover Instituted
1The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt:2This month shall mark for you the beginning of months; it shall be the fir ... View more

Exod 23:15

15You shall observe the festival of unleavened bread; as I commanded you, you shall eat unleavened bread for seven days at the appointed time in the month of Ab ... View more

Exod 34:18

18You shall keep the festival of unleavened bread. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month of Abib; fo ... View more

Exod 34:25

25You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven, and the sacrifice of the festival of the passover shall not be left until the morning.

Lev 23:5-8

5In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight, there shall be a passover offering to the Lord,6and on the fifteenth day of the same month ... View more

Num 9:1-14

The Passover at Sinai
1The Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt, s ... View more

Num 28:16-25

Offerings at Passover
16On the fourteenth day of the first month there shall be a passover offering to the Lord.17And on the fifteenth day of this month is a fe ... View more

Deut 16:1-8

The Passover Reviewed
1Observe the month of Abib by keeping the passover for the Lord your God, for in the month of Abib the Lord your God brought you out of Eg ... View more

Ezek 45:21-24

21In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, you shall celebrate the festival of the passover, and for seven days unleavened bread shall be eaten.2 ... View more

Exod 23:16

16You shall observe the festival of harvest, of the first fruits of your labor, of what you sow in the field. You shall observe the festival of ingathering at t ... View more

Exod 34:22

22You shall observe the festival of weeks, the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the festival of ingathering at the turn of the year.

Lev 23:15-21

The Festival of Weeks
15And from the day after the sabbath, from the day on which you bring the sheaf of the elevation offering, you shall count off seven weeks ... View more

Num 28:26-31

Offerings at the Festival of Weeks
26On the day of the first fruits, when you offer a grain offering of new grain to the Lord at your festival of weeks, you sha ... View more

Deut 16:9-10

The Festival of Weeks Reviewed
9You shall count seven weeks; begin to count the seven weeks from the time the sickle is first put to the standing grain.10Then y ... View more

Exod 23:16

16You shall observe the festival of harvest, of the first fruits of your labor, of what you sow in the field. You shall observe the festival of ingathering at t ... View more

Exod 34:22

22You shall observe the festival of weeks, the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the festival of ingathering at the turn of the year.

Lev 23:33-36

The Festival of Booths
33The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:34Speak to the people of Israel, saying: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month, and lasting seven ... View more

Num 28:12-31

12also three-tenths of an ephah of choice flour for a grain offering, mixed with oil, for each bull; and two-tenths of choice flour for a grain offering, mixed ... View more

Deut 16:13-18

The Festival of Booths Reviewed
13You shall keep the festival of booths for seven days, when you have gathered in the produce from your threshing floor and your ... View more

Ezek 45:25

25In the seventh month, on the fifteenth day of the month and for the seven days of the festival, he shall make the same provision for sin offerings, burnt offe ... View more

Lev 16:29-34

29This shall be a statute to you forever: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall deny yourselves, and shall do no work, neither the citi ... View more

Lev 23:26-32

The Day of Atonement
26The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:27Now, the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement; it shall be a holy convocation for yo ... View more

Num 29:7

Offerings on the Day of Atonement
7On the tenth day of this seventh month you shall have a holy convocation, and deny yourselves; you shall do no work.

John 5:1

Jesus Heals on the Sabbath
1After this there was a festival of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

John 7:2

2Now the Jewish festival of Booths was near.

John 7:10

Jesus at the Festival of Booths
10But after his brothers had gone to the festival, then he also went, not publicly but as it were in secret.

Matt 26:17-18

The Passover with the Disciples
17On the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Where do you want us to make the preparations for y ... View more

1Cor 11:24

24and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”

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