Liver bile (Job 16:13) or venom (“venom of asps,” Job 20:14). It is used as a metaphor for bitter punishment for evil (Job 20:25). It is also an herb both bitter (Matt 27:34) and poisonous (Ps 69:21). It stood for bitterness (Acts 8:23) and in (Lam 3:19) it is paired with wormwood as the extremity of bitter experience. The “poisonous weeds” of (Hos 10:4) (KJV: “hemlock”) may possibly be Conium maculatum, such as Socrates reportedly drank.

Job 16:13

13his archers surround me.
He slashes open my kidneys, and shows no mercy;
he pours out my gall on the ground.

Job 20:14

14yet their food is turned in their stomachs;
it is the venom of asps within them.

Job 20:25

25It is drawn forth and comes out of their body,
and the glittering point comes out of their gall;
terrors come upon them.

Matt 27:34

34they offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall; but when he tasted it, he would not drink it.

Ps 69:21

21They gave me poison for food,
and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.

Acts 8:23

23For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and the chains of wickedness.”

Lam 3:19

19The thought of my affliction and my homelessness
is wormwood and gall!

Hos 10:4

4They utter mere words;
with empty oaths they make covenants;
so litigation springs up like poisonous weeds
in the furrows of the field.

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