Herod

Herod (Hair´uhd)

Name of a family of Idumean origin with strong connections to the Roman government who became centrally involved in the affairs of the Jewish state. Members of the family, under a variety of titles, governed Palestine and adjacent areas from ca. 55 BCE until near the close of the first century CE. The following members of the family appear in the NT: 1 Herod I (Herod the Great). From 37 until his death in 4 BCE, Herod ruled as king of the Jews, a reign marked by his total loyalty to Rome, his grandiose and sometimes magnificent building programs, his family strife, and his harsh repression of any opposition. According to (Matt 2:1-18, Luke 1:5), the birth of Jesus occurred while Herod was king. The king’s well-known ruthlessness in defending his throne against any threat forms the background for the story of the massacre of Bethlehem’s children (Matt 2:16-17). After Herod’s death in 4 BCE, Augustus Caesar resolved the dispute that broke out among three of Herod’s surviving sons by dividing the kingdom but withholding the royal title from the heirs. To Archelaus, son of Malthace, went the title “ethnarch” and half of the territory (Judea, Idumea, and Samaria). The other half was split into two tetrarchies: Antipas, younger brother of Archelaus, received Galilee and Perea; Philip, son of Cleopatra, received Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. 2 Herod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great and ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea (4 BCE–6 CE). See also Archelaus. 3 Herod Philip, son of Herod the Great and tetrarch of Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis (4 BCE–33/34 CE). He ruled uneventfully and apparently successfully in his northern domains. His name is remembered in that of Caesarea Philippi (see Matt 16:13, Mark 8:27), which was his rebuilding of ancient Panias near the springs of the Jordan River. Philip apparently married his niece Salome, daughter of Herodias and of Philip’s half brother Herod the son of Mariamne. 4 Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great and tetrarch of Galilee and Perea (4 BCE–39 CE). He is “that fox” of (Luke 13:31-32) and the Herod most frequently mentioned in the NT. Both Jesus and John the Baptist were his subjects and carried out their public careers mostly in his territories (Matt 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 3:19-20; Luke 9:7-9; Mark 8:15; Luke 13:31-32; Luke 23:6-16; Acts 4:27). His career was dominated by his relationship to Herodias, whom he married in spite of the fact that she was his niece and married to his half brother Herod when they met and that he was compelled to divorce a daughter of Aretas, the powerful king of the Nabateans, in order to marry her. John, who, according to the Gospels, had criticized this marriage, was imprisoned and later executed by Antipas at Machaerus (Matt 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 3:19-20; Luke 9:7-9). According to the Gospel of Luke, Antipas also played a role in the trial of Jesus (Luke 23:6-16; Acts 4:27). 5 Herod Agrippa I. See Agrippa I. 6 Herod Agrippa II. See Agrippa II.

Matt 2:1-18

The Visit of the Wise Men
1In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem,2asking, “Where is th ... View more

Luke 1:5

The Birth of John the Baptist Foretold
5In the days of King Herod of Judea, there was a priest named Zechariah, who belonged to the priestly order of Abijah. Hi ... View more

Matt 2:16-17

The Massacre of the Infants
16When Herod saw that he had been tricked by the wise men, he was infuriated, and he sent and killed all the children in and around ... View more

Matt 16:13

Peter's Declaration about Jesus
13Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is? ... View more

Mark 8:27

Peter's Declaration about Jesus
27Jesus went on with his disciples to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way he asked his disciples, “Who do people s ... View more

Luke 13:31-32

The Lament over Jerusalem
31At that very hour some Pharisees came and said to him, “Get away from here, for Herod wants to kill you.”32He said to them, “Go and ... View more

Matt 14:1-12

The Death of John the Baptist
1At that time Herod the ruler heard reports about Jesus;2and he said to his servants, “This is John the Baptist; he has been raise ... View more

Mark 6:14-29

The Death of John the Baptist
14King Herod heard of it, for Jesus' name had become known. Some were saying, “John the baptizer has been raised from the dead; an ... View more

Luke 3:19-20

19But Herod the ruler, who had been rebuked by him because of Herodias, his brother's wife, and because of all the evil things that Herod had done,20added to th ... View more

Luke 9:7-9

Herod's Perplexity
7Now Herod the ruler heard about all that had taken place, and he was perplexed, because it was said by some that John had been raised from t ... View more

Mark 8:15

15And he cautioned them, saying, “Watch out—beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod.”

Luke 13:31-32

The Lament over Jerusalem
31At that very hour some Pharisees came and said to him, “Get away from here, for Herod wants to kill you.”32He said to them, “Go and ... View more

Luke 23:6-16

Jesus before Herod
6When Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean.7And when he learned that he was under Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him off ... View more

Acts 4:27

27For in this city, in fact, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom ... View more

Matt 14:1-12

The Death of John the Baptist
1At that time Herod the ruler heard reports about Jesus;2and he said to his servants, “This is John the Baptist; he has been raise ... View more

Mark 6:14-29

The Death of John the Baptist
14King Herod heard of it, for Jesus' name had become known. Some were saying, “John the baptizer has been raised from the dead; an ... View more

Luke 3:19-20

19But Herod the ruler, who had been rebuked by him because of Herodias, his brother's wife, and because of all the evil things that Herod had done,20added to th ... View more

Luke 9:7-9

Herod's Perplexity
7Now Herod the ruler heard about all that had taken place, and he was perplexed, because it was said by some that John had been raised from t ... View more

Luke 23:6-16

Jesus before Herod
6When Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean.7And when he learned that he was under Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him off ... View more

Acts 4:27

27For in this city, in fact, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom ... View more

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