The process of removing impurities from metal ore. Two verbs in Hebrew are employed metaphorically for the cleansing or purifying of persons or things either by filtering or washing or by burning or smelting. When referring to metalworking, the process is that of melting a solid to a liquid in order to remove the dross (Isa 1:25; Mal 3:3) or burning in which the fire helps in the extraction of metal from an ore by enhancing chemical reactions (Isa 48:10; Jer 6:29; Jer 9:6; Ps 12:6).

Isa 1:25

25I will turn my hand against you;
I will smelt away your dross as with lye
and remove all your alloy.

Mal 3:3

3he will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he will purify the descendants of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, until they present offerings ... View more

Isa 48:10

10See, I have refined you, but not like silver;
I have tested you in the furnace of adversity.

Jer 6:29

29The bellows blow fiercely,
the lead is consumed by the fire;
in vain the refining goes on,
for the wicked are not removed.

Jer 9:6

6Oppression upon oppression, deceit upon deceit!
They refuse to know me, says the Lord.

Ps 12:6

6The promises of the Lord are promises that are pure,
silver refined in a furnace on the ground,
purified seven times.

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