Romans, The Letter of Paul to the

Romans, The Letter of Paul to the (Roh´muhnz)

The Letter of Paul to the, the longest of Paul’s letters, generally regarded as the most important for understanding his theological message. Among other things, the letter focuses on explaining how God’s righteousness has been manifested through faith apart from works of the law, and on the consequences of such grace for the salvation of the Gentiles and the unity of God’s people.

Outline of Contents

Romans

I. Introduction (Rom 1:1-17)

A. Salutation (Rom 1:1-7)

B. Thanksgiving (Rom 1:8-15)

C. Summary of Paul’s gospel (Rom 1:16-17)

II. Wrath now revealed on all (Rom 1:18-3:20)

A. Gentiles under the power of sin (Rom 1:18-32)

B. Jews under the power of sin (Rom 2:1-29)

C. Objection (Rom 3:1-8)

D. Judgment on both Jews and Greeks (Rom 3:9-20)

III. Righteousness now revealed to all (Rom 3:21-4:25)

A. Righteousness by faith to all, Jews and Gentiles (Rom 3:21-31)

B. Scripture proof: Abraham made righteous by faith (Rom 4:1-25)

IV. The life of righteousness by faith (Rom 5:1-8:39)

A. God’s righteousness through Jesus Christ (Rom 5:1-11)

B. The way Jesus mediates God’s righteousness (Rom 5:12-21)

1. Sin and death through first Adam (Rom 5:12-14)

2. Acquittal, life, and grace through Christ (Rom 5:15-21)

C. Replies to objections that grace fosters immorality (Rom 6:1-8:39)

1. If grace overcomes sin, why not sin more to receive more grace? (Rom 6:1-7:6)

a. Response: can the baptized behave in the ways of the old life? (Rom 6:1-14)

b. Response: can a freed slave still serve an old master? (Rom 6:15-23)

c. Response: can a widow who remarries return to her deceased husband? (Rom 7:1-6)

2. Objection: if a believer is liberated from the law, is the law therefore sinful? (Rom 7:7) Response: a heart corrupted by sin, not the law, is sinful (Rom 7:7-25)

3. The believer is not lawless but walks by the Spirit in love (Rom 8:1-39)

V. Objection: why be a Jew? and Paul’s answer (Rom 9:1-11:36)

A. To Israel belong special privileges (Rom 9:1-5)

B. Israel’s rejection, even if final, is not a failure on God’s part (Rom 9:6-13)

C. God’s selection of Gentiles, even if arbitrary, is not unjust (Rom 9:14-29)

D. God’s selection is not arbitrary: everyone, Jew or Gentile, who turns to God will be saved (Rom 9:30-10:21)

E. The Jewish rejection is not final (Rom 11:1-32)

1. A remnant has accepted the gospel (Rom 11:1-6)

2. God uses the rejection of Jews (Rom 11:7-24)

3. All Israel will be saved (Rom 11:25-32)

F. Doxology of praise to God (Rom 11:33-36)

VI. God’s righteousness in the daily life of the believer (Rom 12:1-15:13)

A. Introduction (Rom 12:1-2)

B. Response to insiders (Rom 12:3-13)

C. Response to outsiders (Rom 12:14-13:7)

1. Persecutors (Rom 12:14-21)

2. Governing authorities and state (Rom 13:1-7)

D. Response to all: love (Rom 13:8-10)

E. Urgency imposed by the approaching end (Rom 13:11-14)

F. Weak and strong in Rome (Rom 14:1-15:13)

VII. Paul’s travel plans (Rom 15:14-29)

VIII. Conclusion (Rom 15:30-33)

IX. Appendix: recommendation, greetings, warning against false teachers (Rom 16:1-23)

X. Letter closing (Rom 16:25-27)

Rom 1:1-17

Salutation
1Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,2which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the ... View more

Rom 1:1-7

Salutation
1Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,2which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the ... View more

Rom 1:8-15

Prayer of Thanksgiving
8First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed throughout the world.9For God, whom I serve ... View more

Rom 1:16-17

The Power of the Gospel
16For I am not ashamed of the gospel; it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith, to the Jew first and also to the G ... View more

Rom 1:18-3:20

The Guilt of Humankind
18For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of those who by their wickedness suppress the truth ... View more

Rom 1:18-32

The Guilt of Humankind
18For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of those who by their wickedness suppress the truth ... View more

Rom 2:1-29

The Righteous Judgment of God
1Therefore you have no excuse, whoever you are, when you judge others; for in passing judgment on another you condemn yourself, be ... View more

Rom 3:1-8

1Then what advantage has the Jew? Or what is the value of circumcision?2Much, in every way. For in the first place the Jews were entrusted with the oracles of G ... View more

Rom 3:9-20

None Is Righteous
9What then? Are we any better off? No, not at all; for we have already charged that all, both Jews and Greeks, are under the power of sin,10as ... View more

Rom 3:21-4:25

Righteousness through Faith
21But now, apart from law, the righteousness of God has been disclosed, and is attested by the law and the prophets,22the righteousn ... View more

Rom 3:21-31

Righteousness through Faith
21But now, apart from law, the righteousness of God has been disclosed, and is attested by the law and the prophets,22the righteousn ... View more

Rom 4:1-25

The Example of Abraham
1What then are we to say was gained by Abraham, our ancestor according to the flesh?2For if Abraham was justified by works, he has someth ... View more

Rom 5:1-8:39

Results of Justification
1Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,2through whom we have obtained access ... View more

Rom 5:1-11

Results of Justification
1Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,2through whom we have obtained access ... View more

Rom 5:12-21

Adam and Christ
12Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death came through sin, and so death spread to all because all have sinned—13s ... View more

Rom 5:12-14

Adam and Christ
12Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death came through sin, and so death spread to all because all have sinned—13s ... View more

Rom 5:15-21

15But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died through the one man's trespass, much more surely have the grace of God and the free gift in t ... View more

Rom 6:1-8:39

Dying and Rising with Christ
1What then are we to say? Should we continue in sin in order that grace may abound?2By no means! How can we who died to sin go on l ... View more

Rom 6:1-7:6

Dying and Rising with Christ
1What then are we to say? Should we continue in sin in order that grace may abound?2By no means! How can we who died to sin go on l ... View more

Rom 6:1-14

Dying and Rising with Christ
1What then are we to say? Should we continue in sin in order that grace may abound?2By no means! How can we who died to sin go on l ... View more

Rom 6:15-23

Slaves of Righteousness
15What then? Should we sin because we are not under law but under grace? By no means!16Do you not know that if you present yourselves to ... View more

Rom 7:1-6

An Analogy from Marriage
1Do you not know, brothers and sisters —for I am speaking to those who know the law—that the law is binding on a person only during tha ... View more

Rom 7:7

The Law and Sin
7What then should we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. I would not have kn ... View more

Rom 7:7-25

The Law and Sin
7What then should we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. I would not have kn ... View more

Rom 8:1-39

Life in the Spirit
1There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.2For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free ... View more

Rom 9:1-11:36

God's Election of Israel
1I am speaking the truth in Christ—I am not lying; my conscience confirms it by the Holy Spirit—2I have great sorrow and unceasing angu ... View more

Rom 9:1-5

God's Election of Israel
1I am speaking the truth in Christ—I am not lying; my conscience confirms it by the Holy Spirit—2I have great sorrow and unceasing angu ... View more

Rom 9:6-13

6It is not as though the word of God had failed. For not all Israelites truly belong to Israel,7and not all of Abraham's children are his true descendants; but ... View more

Rom 9:14-29

14What then are we to say? Is there injustice on God's part? By no means!15For he says to Moses,
“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy,
and I will have compas ... View more

Rom 9:30-10:21

Israel's Unbelief
30What then are we to say? Gentiles, who did not strive for righteousness, have attained it, that is, righteousness through faith;31but Israel ... View more

Rom 11:1-32

Israel's Rejection Is Not Final
1I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe ... View more

Rom 11:1-6

Israel's Rejection Is Not Final
1I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe ... View more

Rom 11:7-24

7What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened,8as it is written,
“God gave them a sluggish spirit,
... View more

Rom 11:25-32

All Israel Will Be Saved
25So that you may not claim to be wiser than you are, brothers and sisters, I want you to understand this mystery: a hardening has come ... View more

Rom 11:33-36

33O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways!34“For who has known the mind of th ... View more

Rom 12:1-15:13

The New Life in Christ
1I appeal to you therefore, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptabl ... View more

Rom 12:1-2

The New Life in Christ
1I appeal to you therefore, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptabl ... View more

Rom 12:3-13

3For by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think of yourself more highly than you ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, each a ... View more

Rom 12:14-13:7

14Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them.15Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep.16Live in harmony with one another; do n ... View more

Rom 12:14-21

14Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them.15Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep.16Live in harmony with one another; do n ... View more

Rom 13:1-7

Being Subject to Authorities
1Let every person be subject to the governing authorities; for there is no authority except from God, and those authorities that ex ... View more

Rom 13:8-10

Love for One Another
8Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.9The commandments, “You shall not com ... View more

Rom 13:11-14

An Urgent Appeal
11Besides this, you know what time it is, how it is now the moment for you to wake from sleep. For salvation is nearer to us now than when we b ... View more

Rom 14:1-15:13

Do Not Judge Another
1Welcome those who are weak in faith, but not for the purpose of quarreling over opinions.2Some believe in eating anything, while the weak ... View more

Rom 15:14-29

Paul's Reason for Writing So Boldly
14I myself feel confident about you, my brothers and sisters, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all know ... View more

Rom 15:30-33

30I appeal to you, brothers and sisters, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to join me in earnest prayer to God on my behalf,31that I may b ... View more

Rom 16:1-23

Personal Greetings
1I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon of the church at Cenchreae,2so that you may welcome her in the Lord as is fitting for the saint ... View more

Rom 16:25-27

Final Doxology
25Now to God who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the myster ... View more

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