Fermented grape juice. Wine ranked with oil as an important commercial crop and the grape harvest was a time of special joy (Judg 21:20-21; Isa 16:10; Jer 48:33). Bread and wine represented the basic elements of food and drink (Judg 19:19; Lam 2:12), giving rise to metaphorical and symbolic uses (Prov 4:17), as in the Eucharist (1Cor 11:23-26). But wine was especially identified with court dining and feasts (Esth 1:1-9; Dan 1:5; Dan 1:8; Dan 1:16; 1Sam 25:36; John 2:1-10), where it was frequently mixed with spices (Song 8:2; Prov 9:5). A special kind of drinking feast was the Canaanite mourning feast, characterized by ritual drunkenness and sexual intercourse, which persisted in Israel despite prophetic condemnation (Amos 6:4-7; Isa 28:7-8; see “house of mourning,” Jer 16:5, and “banqueting house,” Song 2:4). Wine was generally viewed as a blessing (Gen 27:28; Deut 7:13) that “gladdens the heart” (Ps 104:15; Eccl 10:19) and banishes misery in forgetfulness (Prov 31:6). Its absence on special occasions such as weddings was a misfortune (John 2:1-10). Wine was offered to God in Israelite worship (Lev 23:13; Num 28:14) and was employed medicinally to administer drugs (Matt 27:34), to treat wounds (Luke 10:34), and to cure digestive ailments (1Tim 5:23). But a glad heart meant a dull mind (Hos 4:11), making one irresponsible (Prov 31:4), unwary of danger (2Sam 13:28), and easily manipulated (Gen 19:32-35; Esth 5:4-10; Esth 7:2). The drunkard is depicted as foolish or mad (Jer 51:7), reeling and vomiting (Isa 28:7-8), licentious (Rev 18:3), sprawling in senseless stupor, and babbling incoherently (Acts 2:13). The wise are counseled to avoid strong drink (Prov 23:29-31). Kings should abstain lest they pervert justice (Prov 31:4-5); bishops and deacons should be temperate (1Tim 3:3; 1Tim 3:8). Priests were prohibited from drinking on duty (Lev 10:9), and Nazirites pledged abstinence for the duration of their vows (Num 6:3-4; Num 6:20; Luke 1:15). The itinerant Rechabites rejected all fruits of the vine as expressions of sedentary life (Jer 35:7-9).

Judg 21:20-21

20And they instructed the Benjaminites, saying, “Go and lie in wait in the vineyards,21and watch; when the young women of Shiloh come out to dance in the dances ... View more

Isa 16:10

10Joy and gladness are taken away
from the fruitful field;
and in the vineyards no songs are sung,
no shouts are raised;
no treader treads out wine in the press ... View more

Jer 48:33

33Gladness and joy have been taken away
from the fruitful land of Moab;
I have stopped the wine from the wine presses;
no one treads them with shouts of joy;
th ... View more

Judg 19:19

19We your servants have straw and fodder for our donkeys, with bread and wine for me and the woman and the young man along with us. We need nothing more.”

Lam 2:12

12They cry to their mothers,
“Where is bread and wine?”
as they faint like the wounded
in the streets of the city,
as their life is poured out
on their mothers' ... View more

Prov 4:17

17For they eat the bread of wickedness
and drink the wine of violence.

1Cor 11:23-26

The Institution of the Lord's Supper
23For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a l ... View more

Esth 1:1-9

King Ahasuerus Deposes Queen Vashti
1This happened in the days of Ahasuerus, the same Ahasuerus who ruled over one hundred twenty-seven provinces from India to ... View more

Dan 1:5

5The king assigned them a daily portion of the royal rations of food and wine. They were to be educated for three years, so that at the end of that time they co ... View more

Dan 1:8

8But Daniel resolved that he would not defile himself with the royal rations of food and wine; so he asked the palace master to allow him not to defile himself.

Dan 1:16

16So the guard continued to withdraw their royal rations and the wine they were to drink, and gave them vegetables.

1Sam 25:36

36Abigail came to Nabal; he was holding a feast in his house, like the feast of a king. Nabal's heart was merry within him, for he was very drunk; so she told h ... View more

John 2:1-10

The Wedding at Cana
1On the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there.2Jesus and his disciples had also been invited t ... View more

Song 8:2

2I would lead you and bring you
into the house of my mother,
and into the chamber of the one who bore me.
I would give you spiced wine to drink,
the juice of my ... View more

Prov 9:5

5“Come, eat of my bread
and drink of the wine I have mixed.

Amos 6:4-7

4Alas for those who lie on beds of ivory,
and lounge on their couches,
and eat lambs from the flock,
and calves from the stall;5who sing idle songs to the sound ... View more

Isa 28:7-8

7These also reel with wine
and stagger with strong drink;
the priest and the prophet reel with strong drink,
they are confused with wine,
they stagger with stro ... View more

Jer 16:5

5For thus says the Lord: Do not enter the house of mourning, or go to lament, or bemoan them; for I have taken away my peace from this people, says the Lord, my ... View more

Song 2:4

4He brought me to the banqueting house,
and his intention toward me was love.

Gen 27:28

28May God give you of the dew of heaven,
and of the fatness of the earth,
and plenty of grain and wine.

Deut 7:13

13he will love you, bless you, and multiply you; he will bless the fruit of your womb and the fruit of your ground, your grain and your wine and your oil, the i ... View more

Ps 104:15

15and wine to gladden the human heart,
oil to make the face shine,
and bread to strengthen the human heart.

Eccl 10:19

19Feasts are made for laughter;
wine gladdens life,
and money meets every need.

Prov 31:6

6Give strong drink to one who is perishing,
and wine to those in bitter distress;

John 2:1-10

The Wedding at Cana
1On the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there.2Jesus and his disciples had also been invited t ... View more

Lev 23:13

13And the grain offering with it shall be two-tenths of an ephah of choice flour mixed with oil, an offering by fire of pleasing odor to the Lord; and the drink ... View more

Num 28:14

14Their drink offerings shall be half a hin of wine for a bull, one-third of a hin for a ram, and one-fourth of a hin for a lamb. This is the burnt offering of ... View more

Matt 27:34

34they offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall; but when he tasted it, he would not drink it.

Luke 10:34

34He went to him and bandaged his wounds, having poured oil and wine on them. Then he put him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him.

1Tim 5:23

23No longer drink only water, but take a little wine for the sake of your stomach and your frequent ailments.

Hos 4:11


The Idolatry of Israel
Wine and new wine
take away the understanding.

Prov 31:4

4It is not for kings, O Lemuel,
it is not for kings to drink wine,
or for rulers to desire strong drink;

2Sam 13:28

28Then Absalom commanded his servants, “Watch when Amnon's heart is merry with wine, and when I say to you, ‘Strike Amnon,’ then kill him. Do not be afraid; hav ... View more

Gen 19:32-35

32Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, so that we may preserve offspring through our father.”33So they made their father drink win ... View more

Esth 5:4-10

4Then Esther said, “If it pleases the king, let the king and Haman come today to a banquet that I have prepared for the king.”5Then the king said, “Bring Haman ... View more

Esth 7:2

2On the second day, as they were drinking wine, the king again said to Esther, “What is your petition, Queen Esther? It shall be granted you. And what is your r ... View more

Jer 51:7

7Babylon was a golden cup in the Lord's hand,
making all the earth drunken;
the nations drank of her wine,
and so the nations went mad.

Isa 28:7-8

7These also reel with wine
and stagger with strong drink;
the priest and the prophet reel with strong drink,
they are confused with wine,
they stagger with stro ... View more

Rev 18:3

3For all the nations have drunk
of the wine of the wrath of her fornication,
and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her,
and the merchants o ... View more

Acts 2:13

13But others sneered and said, “They are filled with new wine.”

Prov 23:29-31

29Who has woe? Who has sorrow?
Who has strife? Who has complaining?
Who has wounds without cause?
Who has redness of eyes?30Those who linger late over wine,
tho ... View more

Prov 31:4-5

4It is not for kings, O Lemuel,
it is not for kings to drink wine,
or for rulers to desire strong drink;5or else they will drink and forget what has been decree ... View more

1Tim 3:3

3not a drunkard, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, and not a lover of money.

1Tim 3:8

Qualifications of Deacons
8Deacons likewise must be serious, not double-tongued, not indulging in much wine, not greedy for money;

Lev 10:9

9Drink no wine or strong drink, neither you nor your sons, when you enter the tent of meeting, that you may not die; it is a statute forever throughout your gen ... View more

Num 6:3-4

3they shall separate themselves from wine and strong drink; they shall drink no wine vinegar or other vinegar, and shall not drink any grape juice or eat grapes ... View more

Num 6:20

20Then the priest shall elevate them as an elevation offering before the Lord; they are a holy portion for the priest, together with the breast that is elevated ... View more

Luke 1:15

15for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He must never drink wine or strong drink; even before his birth he will be filled with the Holy Spirit.

Jer 35:7-9

7nor shall you ever build a house, or sow seed; nor shall you plant a vineyard, or even own one; but you shall live in tents all your days, that you may live ma ... View more

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