Q. Was there a written language in Abraham’s time and what did the alphabet look like in those times?
A. This question assumes that Abraham is a datable historical figure, a claim that many, if not most, biblical scholars would contest. But let me take your question instead to mean: Was there a written language at the time when Abraham was supposed to have lived, and was it alphabetic?
Written languages first developed in Mesopotamia in the late fourth millennium, with Sumerian, which was later replaced by Akkadian, a Semitic language related to Hebrew. Neither of these used an alphabet; instead they were written syllabically, so that the inventory of signs used in any one period was several hundred, to express all possible syllable combinations. Alphabets developed late in the second millennium B.C.E., likely under the influence of the Egyptian practice of writing foreign names using an alphabetic system within their otherwise complex system of hieroglyphics. Thus Hebrew and related languages have a 22-letter alphabet that by and large expresses consonants only—the reader had to “guess” the vowels from context. But the development of alphabets in the ancient Near East was long after the period in which Abraham would have lived according to the biblical chronology; the biblical Abraham would have written syllabically in Akkadian in cuneiform (wedged-shaped writing impressed on clay tablets), rather than writing in any alphabet. —MZB
Q. In all creation accounts God says ‘Let us create this and this. . .’ To whom is God referring to? I thought that God created alone; why then does he speak in the plural?
A. Good question! In the past, Christian interpreters saw a reference to the Christian trinity in these plurals in Gen 1, and Jewish interpreters have had a multitude of explanations. Now, however, most scholars agree that these references to plurals in Gen 1:26 ("Let us create humanity,” author’s translation) and also Gen 3:22 and Gen 11:7, are either a special expression in Hebrew for decision making, a "plural of deliberation," or a reflection of the idea that the God of Israel had a "council" of semi-divine beings that did God's bidding and were available for God's consultation. This "divine council" is found in the texts of surrounding nations, and also seems to be reflected in some other scriptural texts. You can find a good overview of this idea in Chapter 2, "The Divine Council," in Mark Smith's, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism (Oxford, 2001).
Marc Zvi Brettler is the Dora Golding Professor of Biblical Studies at Brandeis University. He is author of How to Read the Jewish Bible (Oxford, 2007) and co-editor of The New Oxford Annotated Bible, The Jewish Study Bible, and The Jewish Annotated New Testament.
David M. Carr is the author, most recently, of Holy Resilience: The Bible's Traumatic Origins (Yale University Press, 2014), which retells the story of the emergence of the Bible and of Judaism and Christianity as a story of survival of trauma. He is professor of Old Testament at Union Theological Seminary in New York and is the author of numerous other books, including The Erotic Word: Sexuality, Spirituality and the Bible (Oxford University Press, 2003) and Introduction to the Old Testament: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts of the Hebrew Bible (Blackwell, 2010).
The Mesopotamian language, written on cuneiform, that was used by the Assyrian and Babylonian empires.
A region notable for its early ancient civilizations, geographically encompassing the modern Middle East, Egypt, and modern Turkey.
The writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, consisting of wedges pressed into clay.
Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).
a group of deities led by a high deity
A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.
The system of pictographic writing used in ancient Egyptian.
People who study a text from historical, literary, theological and other angles.
A religious system characterized by belief in the existence of a single deity.
The first major civilization of ancient Mesopotamia, arising in the fifth millennium B.C.E. and lasting through the early second millennium B.C.E.; the Sumerians invented the first writing system, cuneiform.
God as expressed in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Six Days of Creation and the Sabbath
1In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth,2the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face o ... View more
26Then God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the ... View more
22Then the Lord God said, “See, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might reach out his hand and take also from the tree of li ... View more
7Come, let us go down, and confuse their language there, so that they will not understand one another's speech.”