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Psalm 23 by Rhonda Burnette-Bletsch

Q. Who wrote Psalm 23?

A. Like all but 24 of the 150 biblical psalms, Ps 23 begins with a title or an introductory note. In fact, it begins with the most common introductory note in the Psalter consisting of a single Hebrew word: le-david. This word, which prefaces 73 of the psalms, is usually translated into English as “of David” and has traditionally been interpreted as indicating King David’s authorship of these particular psalms.

However, the prepositional prefix “le” is very ambiguous and could legitimately be translated in many different ways (of, dedicated to, in the tradition of). Also David clearly could not have written some of the psalms prefaced by le-david because they contain references to later (post-Davidic) events, such as Ps 69, which refers to the Babylonian exile (c. 586-539 B.C.E.). So the presence of the title le-david doesn’t really answer your question.

In favor of Davidic authorship is a biblical and post-biblical tradition connecting David to music and poetry (1Sam 16:17-23; 2Sam 1:17-27; Amos 6:5 1Chr 16:7-36). If this tradition has some basis in historical fact (as most traditions do), we can safely assume that David wrote some songs and inspired others. But are any of these songs preserved in the Psalter and is Ps 23 one of them? We don't know for sure.

The Psalter is an anthology compiled over a long period of time (perhaps centuries) and finalized in the 5th or 4th century B.C.E. In its final form, it is divided into 5 parts, imitating the structure of the Torah, with many Davidic psalms in Part I (Ps 1-41). More Davidic psalms appear later in the book, even after the statement at the end of Ps 73 that “The prayers of David son of Jesse are ended.” Other psalms are associated with temple singers such as Asaph (Ps 50, Ps 73-83) and Heman (Ps 88) or no one at all.

David clearly becomes identified with musical worship in Israel’s literary tradition. Later psalms were likely attributed to him for this reason, just as post-exilic wisdom texts were attributed to Solomon and Israel’s constantly expanding legal tradition continued to be attributed to Moses.

Rhonda Burnette-Bletsch, "Psalm 23", n.p. [cited 24 Mar 2017]. Online: http://bibleodyssey.com/en/tools/ask-a-scholar/psalm-23

Contributors

Rhonda Burnette-Bletsch

Rhonda Burnette-Bletsch
Professor, Eastern University

Rhonda Burnette-Bletsch is a professor of biblical studies at Eastern University. She has authored and edited several works including the textbook Studying the Old Testament (Abingdon), the forthcoming The Bible in MotionA Handbook of Biblical Reception in Film (de Gruyter), and many chapters and articles. She serves as the film editor for the multivolume reference work Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception (de Gruyter).

Of or relating to ancient lower Mesopotamia and its empire centered in Babylon.

general condition of living away from ones homeland or specifically the Babylonian captivity

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

Of or related to the written word, especially that which is considered literature; literary criticism is a interpretative method that has been adapted to biblical analysis.

Another name for the biblical book of Psalms or for a copy of this book bound separately from the rest of the Bible.

A hypothetical source of sayings about Jesus conceived to explain common materials in Matthew and Luke.

Ps 23

The Divine Shepherd
A Psalm of David.
1The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want.2He makes me lie down in green pastures;
he leads me beside still waters;3he re ... View more

Ps 69

Prayer for Deliverance from Persecution
To the leader: according to Lilies. Of David.
1Save me, O God,
for the waters have come up to my neck.2I sink in deep mi ... View more

1Sam 16:17-23

17So Saul said to his servants, “Provide for me someone who can play well, and bring him to me.”18One of the young men answered, “I have seen a son of Jesse the ... View more

2Sam 1:17-27

17David intoned this lamentation over Saul and his son Jonathan.18(He ordered that The Song of the Bow be taught to the people of Judah; it is written in the Bo ... View more

Amos 6:5

5who sing idle songs to the sound of the harp,
and like David improvise on instruments of music;

1Chr 16:7-36

David's Psalm of Thanksgiving
7Then on that day David first appointed the singing of praises to the Lord by Asaph and his kindred.
8O give thanks to the Lord, c ... View more

Ps 23

The Divine Shepherd
A Psalm of David.
1The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want.2He makes me lie down in green pastures;
he leads me beside still waters;3he re ... View more

Ps 1-41

BOOK I
(Psalms 1-41)
The Two Ways
1Happy are those
who do not follow the advice of the wicked,
or take the path that sinners tread,
or sit in the seat of scoffe ... View more

Ps 73

BOOK III
(Psalms 73-89)
Plea for Relief from Oppressors
A Psalm of Asaph.
1Truly God is good to the upright,
to those who are pure in heart.2But as for me, my f ... View more

Ps 50

The Acceptable Sacrifice
A Psalm of Asaph.
1The mighty one, God the Lord,
speaks and summons the earth
from the rising of the sun to its setting.2Out of Zion, t ... View more

Ps 73-83

BOOK III
(Psalms 73-89)
Plea for Relief from Oppressors
A Psalm of Asaph.
1Truly God is good to the upright,
to those who are pure in heart.2But as for me, my f ... View more

Ps 88

Prayer for Help in Despondency
A Song. A Psalm of the Korahites. To the leader: according to Mahalath Leannoth. A Maskil of Heman the Ezrahite.
1O Lord, God of ... View more

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