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The second of the three patriarchs of the Israelites (Exod 2:24; Exod 3:6; Jer 33:26). Born to the hundred-year-old Abraham (Gen 21:5) and the ninety-year-old Sarah (Gen 17:17), Isaac was the fulfillment of the divine promise of an heir to Abraham, with whom God would establish his eternal covenant (Gen 17:15-21, Gen 18:10-15, Gen 26:2-5, Gen 26:25). The word “Isaac” comes from the Hebrew word for “laughter” (cf. Gen 17:19 with Gen 18:12, Gen 18:13, Gen 18:15, Gen 21:3, Gen 21:6-7), which was Sarah’s reaction when she heard the prediction that she would bear a son even though she was well past the age of childbearing (Gen 18:10-11). Isaac was the first person to be circumcised at eight days as commanded by God (Gen 21:4 cf. Gen 17:12). The major event of Isaac’s life in the biblical narration may be the story in (Gen 22). Abraham’s loyalty to God is tested by a divine command to sacrifice his beloved son and sole heir (after the expulsion of Ishmael) on a mountain in the land of Moriah (vv. 1–2). An angel cries out from heaven, and a ram is substituted for Isaac. In biblical narratives, Isaac is typically portrayed as the passive, naive innocent who is unaware of the intention of others—he does not know of God’s plan for his sons, Jacob and Esau (Gen 25:23), or of Rebekah’s and Jacob’s conspiracy to get his blessing transferred from Esau (Gen 27). On the other hand, he is protected by God, all his doings are greatly blessed by God, and he attains great wealth and power (Gen 26:1-33). Isaac dies at the age of 180, attended by his sons (Gen 35:27-29). There is far less biblical material concerning Isaac than either Abraham or Jacob, which may indicate that many traditions have been lost. For instance, the origin of the phrase “fear of Isaac” (Gen 31:42; Gen 31:53) is unknown. His individual importance is attested by Amos (Amos 7:9, Amos 7:16). Isaac is frequently mentioned in the NT, along with Abraham and Jacob, as one of the ancestors of God’s chosen people (Matt 1:2; Luke 3:34, Acts 7:8). The binding of Isaac is mentioned in (Jas 2:21), and Paul emphasizes his wondrous birth (Rom 9:7; Rom 9:10) and the promise of God associated with him (Gal 4:28).